Past Perfect em Inglês

O "Past Perfect" forma-se com o verbo auxiliar Had (I, you,he, she, it, we, they) + o particípio passado do verbo principal.
Os particípios regulares se formam adicionando "-ed" ao final do verbo e os particípios irregulares devem ser memorizados.
Veja um exemplo de um verbo regular conjugado em "Past Perfect":
Forma afirmativa do verbo "clean" em past perfect.
Verbo "To clean" Forma Contraída Português
I had cleaned I'd cleaned Eu tinha limpado
You had cleaned You'd cleaned Você tinha limpado
He had cleaned He'd cleaned Ele tinha limpado
She had cleaned She'd cleaned Ela tinha limpado
It had cleaned It'd cleaned Ele, Ela tinha limpado (neutro)
We had cleaned We'd cleaned Nós tínhamos limpado
You had cleaned You'd cleaned Vocês tinham limpado
They had cleaned They'd cleaned Eles, Elas tinham limpado
Forma negativa do verbo "to clean" em past perfect.
Verbo "To clean" Forma Contraída Português
I had not cleaned I hadn't cleaned Eu não tinha limpado
You had not cleaned You hadn't cleaned Você não tinha limpado
He had not cleaned He hadn't cleaned Ele não tinha limpado
She had not cleaned She hadn't cleaned Ela não tinha limpado
It had not cleaned It hadn't cleaned Ele, Ela não tinha limpado (neutro)
We had not cleaned We hadn't cleaned Nós não tínhamos limpado
You had not cleaned You hadn't cleaned Vocês não tinham limpado
They had not cleaned They hadn't cleaned Eles, Elas não tinham limpado
Forma interrogativa do verbo "to clean" em past perfect.
Verbo "To clean" Português
Had I cleaned? Eu tinha limpado?
Had you cleaned? Você tinha limpado?
Had he cleaned? Ele tinha limpado?
Had she cleaned? Ela tinha limpado?
Had it cleaned? Ele, Ela tinha limpado? (neutro)
Had we cleaned? Nós tínhamos limpado?
Had you cleaned? Vocês tinham limpado?
Had they cleaned? Eles, Elas tinham limpado?
Respostas curtas no past perfect.
Resposta Afirmativa Resposta Negativa
Yes, I had No, I had not
No, I hadn't
Yes, you had No, you had not
No, you hadn't
Yes, he had No, he had not
No, he hadn't
Yes, she had No, she had not
No, she hadn't
Yes, it had No, it had not
No, it hadn't
Yes, we had No, we had not
No, we hadn't
Yes, you had No, you had not
No, you hadn't
Yes, they had No, they had not
No, they hadn't
Ordem das frases com verbos em "Past Perfect":
Afirmativas: sujeito + had + particípio passado + objetos.
Exemplo:
I arrived at the airport when the plane had taken off.
(Quando cheguei no aeroporto o avião tinha decolado.)
Negativas: sujeito + hadn't + particípio passado + objetos.
Exemplo:
The shop hadn't closed when I arrived.
(A loja não tinha fechado quando cheguei.)
Interrogativas afirmativas: Had + sujeito + particípio passado + objetos + interrogação.
Exemplos:
Had you finished the book when you gave it back?
(Você tinha terminado o livro quando você o devolveu?)
Respostas curtas afirmativas: "Yes" + sujeito + had.
Exemplos:
Yes, I had.
(Sim.)
Yes, she had.
(Sim.)
Respostas curtas negativas: "No" + sujeito + had + "not".
Exemplos:
No, I had not.
(Não)
No, she had not.
(Não.)
Marcadores temporais do "Past Perfect":
Entre os principais marcadores temporais do "past perfect" temos: before, after, already, just, till, until, when, by the time...
Exemplos:
Had you studied English before you moved to Boston?
(Você tinha estudado inglês antes de se mudar para Boston?)
By the time Ann arrived we had been waiting for 3 hours.
(Nós tínhamos esperado durante três horas, quando Ann chegou.)
Tom had cooked breakfast when we got up.
(Tom tinha feito o café da manhã quando nós acordamos.)